One male will have territorial overlap with several females. Noninvasive methods of obtaining genetic paternity data were also necessary for evaluating predictions about reproductive strategies and nepotism in a wider range of primates (Di Fiore, 2003). I am still an optimist, however, because in less than a lifetime I have witnessed a small, isolated population of muriquis increase more than six‐fold in size, and proportionate growth in the size and competence of the community of dedicated primatologists and conservationists who are working to save them. Leakey sent his first recruit, Jane Goodall, to Tanzania to study chimpanzees in 1960. It's found in chimpanzees, bonobos (pictured right), and spider monkeys. These studies have provided insights into topics such as the effects of social stability and instability on male paternity success (e.g., Altmann et al., 1996), and the potential role of mothers and other maternal kin on paternity success in patrilocal societies (e.g., Strier et al., 2011). In addition to traditional and well‐studied impacts of deforestation and hunting, there are other growing threats to primates, such as climate change and disease, about which we are only beginning to understand. As with other kinds of adaptations, the extent to which behavior can evolve depends on the behavioral variation present in a population and on a combination of other potential constraints ranging from the species’ phylogenetic history, to the population's genetic and demographic composition, to the individual's genotype and experience. Primatologists consider the following -environmental factors: Quality and quantity of different foods. Refinements in our knowledge of the phylogenetic patterning of behavior can be attributed, in part, to advances in our understanding of primate phylogenetic relationships as a result of developments in molecular biology. This compression ends up obscuring important indicators of a species’ behavioral flexibility, and thus masks any interspecific variation in species' adaptive potentials (Strier, 2003b, 2009). Pigmy chimpanzee from south of the Congo River, Chimpanzee politics: Power and sex among the apes, A century of getting to know the chimpanzee, Primate behavior: Field studies of monkeys and apes, Molecular genetic approaches to the study of primate behavior, social organization, and reproduction, Evolution of social organization: A reappraisal for primates by using phylogenetic methods, The relation between ecology and social structure in primates, Ecology, sexual selection, and the evolution of mating systems, Impending extinction crisis of the world's primates: Why primates matter, Science and the successful female: Why there are so many women primatologists, Finite social space, evolutionary pathways, and reconstructing hominid behavior, The comparative method in evolutionary biology, Comparative methods for explaining adaptations, Absence of `youngest ascendancy' in the dominance relations of sisters in wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui), Primate origins of human cognition and behavior, Apes in the anthropocene: Flexibility and survival, Infanticide as a primate reproductive strategy, Infanticide: Let's not throw out the baby with the bath water, Social organization of subhuman primates in their natural habitat, Physical anthropology and primatology: Review of Primate behavior: Field studies of monkeys and apes by Irven Devore, Contest and scramble competition: Patterns of female aggression and ranging behavior among primates, Primate socio‐ecology: The end of a golden age, The social organisation of antelope in relationto their ecology, Primates: Studies in adaptation and variability, A Darwinian species definition and its implications. This is the most common form of social system in primates. Other members of the expedition included anatomist Adolph H. Schultz and anthropology student Sherwood Washburn (Marks, 2000).

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